Optical power or loss? ("absolute" vs "relative")
Practically every measurement in Fibre optics refers to optical power. The power output of a transmitter or the input to receiver are "absolute" optical power measurements, that is, you measure the actual value of the power. Loss is a "relative" power measurement, the difference between the power coupled into a component like a cable or a connector and the power that is transmitted through it. This difference is what we call optical loss and defines the performance of a cable, connector, splice, etc.
Power in a fibre optic system is like voltage in an electrical circuit - it's what makes things happen! It's important to have enough power, but not too much. Too little power and the receiver may not be able to distinguish the signal from noise; too much power overloads the receiver and causes errors too.
Measuring power requires only a power meter (most come with a screw-on adapter that matches the connector being tested) and a little help from the network electronics to turn on the transmitter. Remember when you measure power, the meter must be set to the proper range (usually dBm, sometimes microwatts, but never "dB" - that's a relative power range used only for testing loss!) and the proper wavelengths, matching the source being used. Refer to the instructions that come with the test equipment for setup and measurement instructions (and don't wait until you get to the job site to try the equipment)!
To measure power, attach the meter to the cable that has the output you want to measure. That can be at the receiver to measure receiver power, or to a reference test cable (tested and known to be good) that is attached to the transmitter, acting as the "source", to measure transmitter power. Turn on the transmitter/source and note the power the meter measures. Compare it to the specified power for the system and make sure it's enough power but not too much.
Loss testing is the difference between the power coupled into the cable at the transmitter end and what comes out at the receiver end. Testing for loss requires measuring the optical power lost in a cable (including connectors, splices, etc) with a fibre optic source and power meter by mating the cable being tested to known good reference cable.
In addition to our power meter, we will need a test source. The test source should match the type of source (LED or laser) and wavelength (850, 1300, 1550 nm). Again, read the instructions that come with the unit carefully.
We also need one or two reference cables, depending on the test we wish to perform. The accuracy of the measurement we make will depend on the quality of your reference cables. Always test your reference cables by the single ended method shown below to make sure they're good before you start testing other cables!
Next we need to set our reference power for loss - our "0 dB" value. Correct setting of the launch power is critical to making good loss measurements!
Clean your connectors and set up your equipment like this:
- Turn on the source and select the wavelength you want for the loss test.
- Turn on the meter, select the "dBm" or "dB" range and select the wavelength you want for the loss test.
- Measure the power at the meter. This is your reference power level for all loss measurements. If your meter has a "zero" function, set this as your "0" reference.
Some reference books and manuals show setting the reference power for loss using both a launch and receive cable mated with a mating adapter. This method is acceptable for some tests, but will reduce the loss you measure by the amount of loss between your reference cables when you set your "0dB loss" reference. Also, if either the launch or receive cable is bad, setting the reference with both cables hides the fact. Then you could begin testing with bad launch cables making all your loss measurements wrong. EIA/TIA 568 calls for a single cable reference, while OFSTP-14 allows either method.
There are two methods that are used to measure loss, which we call "single-ended loss" and "double-ended loss". Single-ended loss uses only the launch cable, while double-ended loss uses a receive cable attached to the meter also.
Single-ended loss is measured by mating the cable you want to test to the reference launch cable and measuring the power out the far end with the meter. When you do this you measure 1. the loss of the connector mated to the launch cable and 2. the loss of any fibre, splices or other connectors in the cable you are testing. This method is described in FOTP-171 and is shown in the drawing. Reverse the cable to test the connector on the other end.
In a double-ended loss test, you attach the cable to test between two reference cables, one attached to the source and one to the meter. This way, you measure two connectors' loses, one on each end, plus the loss of all the cable or cables in between. This is the method specified in OFSTP-14, the test for loss in an installed cable plant.
What loss should you get when testing cables?
While it is difficult to generalise, here are some guidelines:
- For each connector, figure 0.5 dB loss (0.7 max)
- For each splice, figure 0.2 dB
- For multimode fibre, the loss is about 3 dB per km for 850 nm sources, 1 dB per km for 1300 nm. This roughly translates into a loss of 0.1 dB per 100 feet for 850 nm, 0.1 dB per 300 feet for 1300 nm.
- For singlemode fibre, the loss is about 0.5 dB per km for 1300 nm sources, 0.4 dB per km for 1550 nm. This roughly translates into a loss of 0.1 dB per 600 feet for 1300 nm, 0.1 dB per 750 feet for 1300 nm.
So for the loss of a cable plant, calculate the approximate loss as:
(0.5 dB x number of connectors) + (0.2 dB x number of splices) + Fibre loss on the total length of cable
- If you have high loss in a cable, make sure to reverse it and test in the opposite direction using the single-ended method. Since the single ended test only tests the connector on one end, you can isolate a bad connector - it's the one at the launch cable end (mated to the launch cable) on the test when you measure high loss.
- High loss in the double ended test should be isolated by retesting single-ended and reversing the direction of test to see if the end connector is bad. If the loss is the same, you need to either test each segment separately to isolate the bad segment or, if it is long enough, use an OTDR.
- If you see no light through the cable (very high loss - only darkness when tested with your visual tracer), it's probably one of the connectors, and you have few options. The best one is to isolate the problem cable, cut the connector off one end (flip a coin to choose) and hope it was the bad one (well, you have a 50-50 chance!)